SWRC Sensor to Database Documentation

 

SWRC Meteorological Data

 

Overview

A 27 year (1990-2017) meteorological database has been developed for the Southwest Watershed Research Center (SWRC) with 4 sites in southeastern Arizona at Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) and Audubon Research Ranch (ARR). Meteorological elements measured at the weather stations include air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation, and net radiation. Data are available at http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/dap. Modified from Keefer et al., 2008

Measured Variables

Keefer et al., 2008

Met/Soil Column Headers

Air Temperature [deg C]

Relative Humidity [%]

Wind Speed [m s-1]

Wind Direction [deg]

Barometric Pressure [mb]

Solar Radiation [W m-2]

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) [μmol s-1 m-2]

Net Radiation [W m-2]

Network Extent/Time line

Keefer et al., 2008

Table 1: SWRC meteorological station locations and years of operation. Coordinates are not survey grade.



Site

Kendall Met. Station (WGEW)

Lucky Hills Met. Station (WGEW)

Shop Met. Station (WGEW)

Audubon Research Ranch (ARR)
Met. Station



Easting

600231

589774

589310

546604

547920

UTM NAD83

Northing

3511719

3512431

3508200

3495161

3496185



Elevation

1527

1374

1406

1453

1454


Operation
Period

1990-2017

1990-2017

1995-2017

1997-2001*

2001-2017*

 

*The ARR met. station was moved in 2001 due to a fire.

 

Instrumentation Specifications

Keefer et al., 2008

Table 2: SWRC meteorological instrumentation specifications and periods of operation.

Instrument

Air Temperature:

Relative Humidity:

Wind Speed:

Wind Direction:

Barometric Pressure:

Solar Radiation:

PAR:

Net Radiation:

Height (m)

 

  • 2.0
  • 2.0
  • 2.0
  • 2.0

 

  • 2.0
  • 2.0
  • 2.0
  • 2.0

 

  • 3.5

 

  • 3.5

 

  • 1.7
  • 1.7
  • 1.7

 

  • 3.5

 

  • 3.2

 

  • 3.0
  • 3.0

Period

 

  • 1990-1993A,B
  • 1993-2001A,B, 1995-1996C, 1997-2001D
  • 2001-2014A,B,C,D
  • 2014-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-1993A,B
  • 1993-2001A,B, 1995-1996C, 1997-2001D
  • 2001-2014A,B,C,D
  • 2014-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-2017A, 2001-2017B, 1995-2017C, 1997-2017D

 

  • 1990-2017A, 2001-2017B, 1995-2017C, 1997-2017D

 

  • 1995-1999C, 1997-2015D
  • 2001-2017A,B, 2001-2014C, 2015-2017D
  • 2014-2017C

 

  • 1990-2017A,B, 1995-2017C, 1997-2017D

 

  • 1993-2017A,B, 2001-2017C, 1997-2017D

 

  • 1990-1996A,B
  • 1996-2004A,B

 

AKendall Met., BLucky Hills Met., CShop Met, DAudubon Met.

Error/Accuracy Specifications

Keefer et al., 2008

Table 3: SWRC meteorological instrumentation error specifications and sampling resolution.


Instrument

Air Temperature:

Relative Humidity:

Wind Speed:

Wind Direction:

Barometric Pressure:

Solar Radiation:

PAR:

Net Radiation:


Accuracy

 

  • ± 0.5° C
  • ± 0.4° C
  •   
  • ± 0.4° C
  •   
  • ± 0.4° C
  •   

 

  • ± 5%
  • ± 3%
  •   
  • ± 3%
  •   
  • ± 3%
  •   

 

  • ± 0.5 m s-1
  •   
  •   
  •   

 

  • ± 5 deg
  •   
  •   
  •   

 

  • ± 6 mb
  •   
  •   
  • ± 6 mb
  •   
  •   
  • ± 6 mb
  •   

 

  • ± 3%
  •   
  •   
  •   

 

  • ± 3%
  •   
  •   
  •   

 

  • <10%
  • <10%

Output*
(Time, min)

 

  • 60
  • 60
  • 20
  • 20
  • 30
  • 30
  • 15

 

  • 60
  • 60
  • 20
  • 20
  • 30
  • 30
  • 15

 

  • 60
  • 20 
  • 30 
  • 15 

 

  • 60
  • 20 
  • 30 
  • 15 

 

  • 60S
  • 20S
  • 30S
  • 20S
  • 30S
  • 15S
  • 30S
  • 15S

 

  • 60
  • 20
  • 30
  • 15

 

  • 60
  • 20
  • 30
  • 15

 

  • 60
  • 20


Period

 

  • 1990-1993A,B
  • 1993-1996A,B, 1995-1996C, 1997-2001D
  • 1996-2001A,B
  • 2001-2007A,B,C,D
  • 2007-2014A,B,C,D
  • 2014-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-1993A,B
  • 1993-1996A,B, 1995-1996C, 1997-2001D
  • 1996-2001A,B,D
  • 2001-2007A,B,C,D
  • 2007-2014A,B,C,D
  • 2014-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-1996A, 1995-1996C
  • 1996-2007A,C, 1997-2007D, 2001-2007B
  • 2007-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-1996A, 1995-1996C
  • 1996-2007A,C, 1997-2007D, 2001-2007B
  • 2007-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1995-1996C
  • 1996-1999C, 1997-2007D
  • 2007-2015D
  • 2001-2007A,B,C
  • 2007-2017A,B, 2007-2014 C, 2015-2017D
  • 2015-2017A,B, 2015-2017D
  • 2014-2017C
  • 2015-2017C

 

  • 1990-1996A,B, 1995-1996C
  • 1996-2007A,B,C,1997-2007D
  • 2007-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1993-1996A,B
  • 1996-2007A,B, 2001-2007C, 1997-2007D
  • 2007-2017A,B,C,D
  • 2015-2017A,B,C,D

 

  • 1990-1996A,B
  • 1996-2004A,B

 

AKendall Met., BLucky Hills Met., CShop Met., DAudubon Met.

*All output data is is averaged from 10-sec. samples over the measurement period, unless otherwise noted.

SDenotes an instantaneous sample taken at the end of the measurement period.

installation and Maintenance

Keefer et al., 2008

All meteorological sensors were installed and are maintained according to manufacturer's specifications and use manufacturer supplied calibrations when appropriate.

Sensors are inspected and cleaned on an annual basis. Sensor repair or replacement is conducted as needed.

Data Recording

The SWRC meteorological stations record data using Campbell scientific dataloggers (CR1000 currently and CR10/CR10X historically) and multiplexers (AM16/32). Dataloggers are programmed using Campbell scientific's LoggerNet. CR10X dataloggers are programmed using EdLog and CR1000 dataloggers use CRBasic. While the programming languages differ in syntax, the logic and recording functions where shown to be interchangeable through thorough testing of the programs. All sensors, with the exception of barometric pressure, are sampled every 10 seconds and averaged over the recording period (e.g., 15, 20, 30 min). Barometric pressure is sampled once at the end of the recording period.

Data Collection/archiving

Shortly after midnight on a daily basis, data from the WGEW sites are downloaded automatically via radio and are transmitted to a computer at the SWRC Tombstone field office. VHF, spread spectrum, and cellular modems are used depending on the geographic location of the gauge. Raw data are archived in the Tombstone office and a series of batch processes are executed using LoggerNet to parse out relevant data to be processed in Tucson and to generate daily maintenance reports. The daily data are then transfered to a SWRC server residing in Tucson. Modified from Nichols and Anson., 2008

Data Processing

Data are processed quarterly using a combination of LoggerNet and Fortran processes.

QA/QC

The initial data stream from field sites may contain missing values for any property because the station was not in operation intentionally or accidentally, the sensor was not deployed at that time, or there was data collection, communication or computer failure. Data determined to be collected during periods when a sensor was known to be inoperable (e.g., vandalism, animal or natural interference) were coded with missing values.

Incoming data, after transformation from measured value to final units, if applicable, are screened by automated and visual graphic processes for outliers beyond acceptable limits. Outliers that are physically impossible (e.g., negative soil moisture, temperature above 100° C) are coded as missing.

Limits imposed on meteorological values are from various sources: 40 years of NWS Cooperative Observer station at WGEW field office for air temperature and relative humidity; sensor range from manufacturers manuals for wind speed, wind direction and barometric pressure; estimated limits for solar, photo- synthetically active and net radiation from the Arizona Meteorological Network (http://cals.arizona.edu/azmet/ azdata.htm). This process is completed quarterly. Modified from Keefer et al., 2008

Database Archiving

The raw 15-min meteorological data is archived daily in an SQLServer database once received at the SWRC Tucson office. This provisional data is pushed to an SWRC FTP site, from which the data is ingested and served by the Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) daily. Once the meteorological data has been QA/QC'd (quarterly) it is archived locally and served from the SWRC FTP site, accessible from the SWRC Online Data Access Project Site (DAP) in csv format.

Data Access

SWRC meteorological data can be accessed at the following websites:

SWRC Online Data Access (DAP) - QA/QC'd data updated approximately every 90 days

USDA Long-Term Agroecosystem Research Network - 15-min data updated daily (provisional data)

USDA National Agricultural Library Ag Data Commons - DAP mirror

 

Data Use Agreement

All data available through the SWRC data access website are in the public domain, and are not restricted by copyright.

 

The SWRC will review the research results to ensure sound scientific data interpretation in the context of our historical results and our in situ experience with these data. We expect that our support will be acknowledged through co-authorship and formal acknowledgment of field and/or data support in the manuscripts (see example below).

 

Datasets were provided by the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center. Funding for these datasets was provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.

 

Please send 1 copy of the published manuscript to:

Southwest Watershed Research Center

2000 E. Allen Rd.

Tucson, AZ 85719

Known Data Issues

  • Meteorological data is not in the SWRC database.
  • No standard semi-automated QA/QC procedure is in place.
  • Need to update sensor time line and on/off dates.
  • Need to decide on sampling frequency as data is being recorded at 15 and 30 min. intervals.
  • An improved field maintenance procedure needs to be implemented.
  • Not all measured variables are being collected in the database/flat files.
  • Additional derived/calculated variables, e.g., dew point temperature, could be added to the database.
  • Examples of Data Use

    Goodrich et al., 2011

    Utilizing long-term ARS data to compare and contrast hydroclimatic trends from snow and rainfall dominated watersheds

    References and KEY Literature

    Anson, E. and Wong, J. (2005a). Process DAP Documentation. SWRC Internal Report.

     

    Anson, E. and Wong, J. (2005b). DAP Access Database Description. SWRC Internal Report.

     

    Armendariz, G. (2016). DAP QA/QC processes followed at Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. SWRC Internal Report

     

    Armendariz, G. (2017). DAP Database Flowchart. SWRC Internal Document

     

    Goodrich, D.C., Marks, D., Seyfried, M.S., Keefer, T.O., Unkrich, C.L., Anson, E.A., Clark, P.E., Flerchinger, G.N., Hamerlynck, E.P., Hardegree, S.P., Heilman, P., Holifield Collins, C., Moran, M.S., Nearing, M.A., Nichols,M.H., Pierson,F.B., Scott, R.L., Stone, J.J., Van Vactor, S.S., Winstral, A.H., Wong, J.K. 2011. Utilizing long-term ARS data to compare and contrast hydroclimatic trends from snow and rainfall dominated watersheds. Proceedings of the 4th Interagency Conference of Research in the Watersheds, Fairbanks, AK., Sept. 26-30, 2011.

     

    Keefer, T.O., Moran, M.S., Paige, G.B. 2008. Long-term meteorological and soil hydrology database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States. Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W05S07.

     

    Nichols, M. H., & Anson, E. (2008). Southwest watershed research center data access project. Water resources research, 44(5).

     

    Smith, J.R. (2017) Instrumentation Protocol. SWRC Internal Report

     

    CR10X Measurement and Control Module Operator's Manual Rv. 02/2003

     

    CR1000 Datalogger Operator's Manual Rv. 12/2016

     

    LoggerNet Version 4.4 Instruction Manual Rv. 02/2016

     

    RF400/RF410/RF415 Spread Spectrum Radio/Modem Manual Rv. 03/2015

     

    RF450 Spread Spectrum Radio Manual Rv. 04/2015

     

    RavenXTV CDMA Sierra Wireless Cellular Modem Manual Rv. 03/2017

     

    RF451 Spread Spectrum Radio Manual Rv. 05/2017

    USDA-ARS SWRC | Draft 4/16/2018 | Mark Kautz